Shortlisting Panel

Andrew Hanson

Andrew has been an artist, botanist, filmmaker, musician, theatrical producer and for the last 12 years, Outreach Manager at the UK's National Physical Laboratory (NPL). Much of his professional life was spent as a metrologist (measurement scientist) working in the ‘Quantum Metrology’ group as a senior researcher. Managing the explaining of NPL’s science to the masses has included overseeing and judging many film, poster and essay competitions. He has won awards for his own educational filmmaking work. In 2019 he received an MBE for services to STEM education.

Ben McAllister

Ben is a scientist and science communicator working with the ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems and Swinburne University of Technology. His work focuses on applications of quantum technology to fundamental physics, primarily the detection and study of dark matter.

David Hutchinson

As director of the Dodd-Walls Centre for Photonic and Quantum Technologies – a New Zealand national Centre of Research Excellence (CoRE) - David is dedicated to educational outreach, while providing strong support for industry engagement and leadership of research activities across the Centre’s five member universities. He’s initiated and led a successful public engagement partnership with the Otago Museum - of which he has been a board member since 2008 – as well as with other museums, schools and agencies throughout New Zealand. David is also a professor in the University of Otago’s Department of Physics, doing research in theoretical quantum physics. He is a Fellow of the New Zealand Institute of Physics, a Fellow of the Institute of Physics (UK) and a member of the Institute of Directors of New Zealand.

Floor van Riggelen

Floor is an experimental physicist who studied in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Currently, she is a PhD candidate at QuTech in Delft  and works on making spin qubits in quantum dots. The mind boggling properties of quantum mechanics that she works with every day in the lab, never cease to inspire and amaze her. Quantum short stories are for her the perfect combination of her love for stories and literature with her fascination for quantum mechanics.

Jenny Hogan

Jenny is the manager of outreach and media relations at the Centre for Quantum Technologies in Singapore. She has led the organisation of the Quantum Shorts contests since they began in 2012. Earlier in life, she studied physics at the University of Cambridge and worked as a science journalist in the UK for publications including Nature and New Scientist.

John Donohue

John is the Scientific Outreach Manager at the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo. John's job is to take university research out of the labs and off the whiteboards and make it accessible to students and teachers across Canada. John holds a PhD in Physics from the University of Waterloo, with a research specialization in single- and entangled-photon sources, ultrafast measurement, and quantum nonlinear optics.
 

Michael Brooks

Michael, who holds a PhD in quantum physics, is an author, journalist and broadcaster. He is a consultant at New Scientist and the author of numerous books including The Quantum Astrologer’s Handbook, Hollywood Wants to Kill You and the bestselling non-fiction title 13 Things That Don't Make Sense. He co-hosts the award-winning podcast Science(ish), which delves into the science behind popular culture.

Mindy Tan

Mindy is a librarian at Singapore's National Library Board who loves reading, especially in the genre of science fiction. She thinks that the best type of sci-fi books are the ones that are not only grounded in scientific world-building, but are also able to make reading about these worlds accessible to all readers. As a person who has never done well in any science examination, she firmly believes that you should not actually have to understand all the scientific theories to love a compelling story. She previously spent five years running around to various schools in Singapore promoting books and reading to children and teenagers, but now spends most of her time in the backend of the library with Dewey Decimal Classification manuals.

Ruth Hardy

Having studied Experimental Physics at the University of York and subsequently gone on to teach Physics to secondary school students for a number of years, Ruth’s passion for the subject has never waned. Ruth has a fondness for quantum physics; in particular the quirks and the counterintuitive nature of quantum are what she loves most. Her interest in the area was first sparked when she began reading quantum literature as a secondary school student herself. Ruth is now the Communications and Outreach Officer for the UK Quantum Communications Hub and her role is to communicate the exciting and far reaching applications of quantum technologies to the wider community.

Spiros Michalakis

Spiros grew up in Greece, solving math puzzles and playing video games with his brothers. After high school, he moved to Boston to study Math and Computer Science at MIT, before coming to sunny California for his PhD in Applied Mathematics at UC Davis. He is now at Caltech, where he splits his time between research on theoretical quantum physics and outreach for the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter. In the academic world, he is best known for his work on the Quantum Hall Effect. He was a scientific advisor for the film Ant Man and is one of the creators of qCraft for Minecraft, a mod that brings the principles of quantum physics to the Minecraft game. He was also the instigator of the short film Anyone Can Quantum (2016), a viral hit that featured a quantum chess match between Stephen Hawking and Paul Rudd.

Quantum Theories: A to Z

Q is for ...
Quantum States

Quantum states, which represent the state of affairs of a quantum system, change by a different set of rules than classical states.

Z is for ...
Zero-point energy

Even at absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, nothing has zero energy. In these conditions, particles and fields are in their lowest energy state, with an energy proportional to Planck’s constant.

O is for ...
Objective reality

Niels Bohr, one of the founding fathers of quantum physics, said there is no such thing as objective reality. All we can talk about, he said, is the results of measurements we make.

Q is for ...
Qubit

One quantum bit of information is known as a qubit (pronounced Q-bit). The ability of quantum particles to exist in many different states at once means a single quantum object can represent multiple qubits at once, opening up the possibility of extremely fast information processing.

T is for ...
Tunnelling

This happens when quantum objects “borrow” energy in order to bypass an obstacle such as a gap in an electrical circuit. It is possible thanks to the uncertainty principle, and enables quantum particles to do things other particles can’t.

L is for ...
Light

We used to believe light was a wave, then we discovered it had the properties of a particle that we call a photon. Now we know it, like all elementary quantum objects, is both a wave and a particle!

C is for ...
Clocks

The most precise clocks we have are atomic clocks which are powered by quantum mechanics. Besides keeping time, they can also let your smartphone know where you are.

W is for ...
Wavefunction

The mathematics of quantum theory associates each quantum object with a wavefunction that appears in the Schrödinger equation and gives the probability of finding it in any given state.

U is for ...
Uncertainty Principle

One of the most famous ideas in science, this declares that it is impossible to know all the physical attributes of a quantum particle or system simultaneously.

V is for ...
Virtual particles

Quantum theory’s uncertainty principle says that since not even empty space can have zero energy, the universe is fizzing with particle-antiparticle pairs that pop in and out of existence. These “virtual” particles are the source of Hawking radiation.

N is for ...
Nonlocality

When two quantum particles are entangled, it can also be said they are “nonlocal”: their physical proximity does not affect the way their quantum states are linked.

D is for ...
Decoherence

Unless it is carefully isolated, a quantum system will “leak” information into its surroundings. This can destroy delicate states such as superposition and entanglement.

L is for ...
Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

At CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, this machine is smashing apart particles in order to discover their constituent parts and the quantum laws that govern their behaviour.

I is for ...
Interferometer

Some of the strangest characteristics of quantum theory can be demonstrated by firing a photon into an interferometer

W is for ...
Wave-particle duality

It is possible to describe an atom, an electron, or a photon as either a wave or a particle. In reality, they are both: a wave and a particle.

S is for ...
Schrödinger’s Cat

A hypothetical experiment in which a cat kept in a closed box can be alive and dead at the same time – as long as nobody lifts the lid to take a look.

C is for ...
Computing

The rules of the quantum world mean that we can process information much faster than is possible using the computers we use now. This column from Quanta Magazine ​delves into the fundamental physics behind quantum computing.

H is for ...
Hawking Radiation

In 1975, Stephen Hawking showed that the principles of quantum mechanics would mean that a black hole emits a slow stream of particles and would eventually evaporate.

M is for ...
Multiverse

Our most successful theories of cosmology suggest that our universe is one of many universes that bubble off from one another. It’s not clear whether it will ever be possible to detect these other universes.

S is for ...
Superposition

The feature of a quantum system whereby it exists in several separate quantum states at the same time.

A is for ...
Alice and Bob

In quantum experiments, these are the names traditionally given to the people transmitting and receiving information. In quantum cryptography, an eavesdropper called Eve tries to intercept the information.

A is for ...
Atom

This is the basic building block of matter that creates the world of chemical elements – although it is made up of more fundamental particles.

T is for ...
Teleportation

Quantum tricks allow a particle to be transported from one location to another without passing through the intervening space – or that’s how it appears. The reality is that the process is more like faxing, where the information held by one particle is written onto a distant particle.

G is for ...
Gluon

These elementary particles hold together the quarks that lie at the heart of matter.

Y is for ...
Young's Double Slit Experiment

In 1801, Thomas Young proved light was a wave, and overthrew Newton’s idea that light was a “corpuscle”.

S is for ...
Schrödinger Equation

This is the central equation of quantum theory, and describes how any quantum system will behave, and how its observable qualities are likely to manifest in an experiment.

A is for ...
Act of observation

Some people believe this changes everything in the quantum world, even bringing things into existence.

F is for ...
Free Will

Ideas at the heart of quantum theory, to do with randomness and the character of the molecules that make up the physical matter of our brains, lead some researchers to suggest humans can’t have free will.

H is for ...
Hidden Variables

One school of thought says that the strangeness of quantum theory can be put down to a lack of information; if we could find the “hidden variables” the mysteries would all go away.

M is for ...
Many Worlds Theory

Some researchers think the best way to explain the strange characteristics of the quantum world is to allow that each quantum event creates a new universe.

U is for ...
Universe

To many researchers, the universe behaves like a gigantic quantum computer that is busy processing all the information it contains.

Q is for ...
Quantum biology

A new and growing field that explores whether many biological processes depend on uniquely quantum processes to work. Under particular scrutiny at the moment are photosynthesis, smell and the navigation of migratory birds.

P is for ...
Planck's Constant

This is one of the universal constants of nature, and relates the energy of a single quantum of radiation to its frequency. It is central to quantum theory and appears in many important formulae, including the Schrödinger Equation.

I is for ...
Information

Many researchers working in quantum theory believe that information is the most fundamental building block of reality.

M is for ...
Maths

Quantum physics is the study of nature at the very small. Mathematics is one language used to formalise or describe quantum phenomena.

D is for ...
Dice

Albert Einstein decided quantum theory couldn’t be right because its reliance on probability means everything is a result of chance. “God doesn’t play dice with the world,” he said.

E is for ...
Entanglement

When two quantum objects interact, the information they contain becomes shared. This can result in a kind of link between them, where an action performed on one will affect the outcome of an action performed on the other. This “entanglement” applies even if the two particles are half a universe apart.

T is for ...
Time

The arrow of time is “irreversible”—time goes forward. On microscopic quantum scales, this seems less certain. A recent experiment shows that the forward pointing of the arrow of time remains a fundamental rule for quantum measurements.

K is for ...
Key

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a way to create secure cryptographic keys, allowing for more secure communication.

G is for ...
Gravity

Our best theory of gravity no longer belongs to Isaac Newton. It’s Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. There’s just one problem: it is incompatible with quantum theory. The effort to tie the two together provides the greatest challenge to physics in the 21st century.

R is for ...
Reality

Since the predictions of quantum theory have been right in every experiment ever done, many researchers think it is the best guide we have to the nature of reality. Unfortunately, that still leaves room for plenty of ideas about what reality really is!

P is for ...
Probability

Quantum mechanics is a probabilistic theory: it does not give definite answers, but only the probability that an experiment will come up with a particular answer. This was the source of Einstein’s objection that God “does not play dice” with the universe.

E is for ...
Ethics

As the world makes more advances in quantum science and technologies, it is time to think about how it will impact lives and how society should respond. This mini-documentary by the Quantum Daily is a good starting point to think about these ethical issues. 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5qc7gpabEhQ&t=2s 

X is for ...
X-ray

In 1923 Arthur Compton shone X-rays onto a block of graphite and found that they bounced off with their energy reduced exactly as would be expected if they were composed of particles colliding with electrons in the graphite. This was the first indication of radiation’s particle-like nature.

R is for ...
Randomness

Unpredictability lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. It bothered Einstein, but it also bothers the Dalai Lama.

B is for ...
Bell's Theorem

In 1964, John Bell came up with a way of testing whether quantum theory was a true reflection of reality. In 1982, the results came in – and the world has never been the same since!

K is for ...
Kaon

These are particles that carry a quantum property called strangeness. Some fundamental particles have the property known as charm!

S is for ...
Sensors

Researchers are harnessing the intricacies of quantum mechanics to develop powerful quantum sensors. These sensors could open up a wide range of applications.

C is for ...
Cryptography

People have been hiding information in messages for millennia, but the quantum world provides a whole new way to do it.

B is for ...
Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC)

At extremely low temperatures, quantum rules mean that atoms can come together and behave as if they are one giant super-atom.

J is for ...
Josephson Junction

This is a narrow constriction in a ring of superconductor. Current can only move around the ring because of quantum laws; the apparatus provides a neat way to investigate the properties of quantum mechanics and is a technology to build qubits for quantum computers.

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