Rules and Eligibility

Quantum Shorts 2018 Short Film Festival (“Contest”)

Official Rules

Contest may be entered in or from any country worldwide.  This Contest is governed exclusively by the laws of Singapore.  

1. Eligibility. Participation in the sweepstakes is open to individuals worldwide who are age 13 and over as of the date of entry. Void where prohibited, taxed or restricted by law. Members of the judging panel, employees, officers and directors of the Centre for Quantum Technologies (“Organizer”), Scientific American,  Nature (“Media Partners”), the Australian Research Council Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems; the Dodd-Walls Centre for Photonic and Quantum Technologies, New Zealand; the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo, Canada; the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter at Caltech in the United States; QuTech in The Netherlands; and the UK National Quantum Technologies Programme (“Scientific Partners”),and their respective parent companies, subsidiaries, affiliates, partners, advertising and promotion agencies, manufacturers or distributors of Contest materials and their immediate families (parents, children, siblings, spouse) of such individuals/employees/officers/directors are not eligible to enter.

2. How to Enter.  To enter, go to shorts.quantumlah.org (“Site”) during the Contest Period (as defined below), read the Official Rules, and then: create an account on the website filmfreeway.com, upload your film there and submit to the Quantum Shorts festival through its listing at https://filmfreeway.com/festival/quantumshorts. Only online submissions will be accepted.  All entry information and short films shall be collectively referred to herein as the “Submissions” or each as a “Submission.”  Submissions must comply with the Guidelines and Restrictions defined below.  Organizer reserves the right to cancel or modify this Contest in the event an insufficient number of entries are received that meet the minimum judging criteria.  

By entering, each entrant warrants and represents the following with respect to their Submission: (a) entrant is the sole and exclusive owner and copyright holder of the Submission; (b) the Submission is 100% original and does not contain any third party copyrighted material, brand names or trademarks or any content that otherwise infringes on the privacy, publicity or other intellectual property or other rights of a third party; (c) the Submission is suitable for general audiences (i.e., it may not be obscene or indecent or contain objectionable content, including but not limited to nudity, sexual content, pornography or violent, illegal or profane depictions); (d) the Submission does not contain material that is tortious, defamatory, slanderous or libelous or that promotes bigotry, racism, hatred, harm to any group or individual or discrimination based on race, gender, religion, nationality, disability, sexual orientation or age; (e) by providing a Submission, entrant consents that if their submission is shortlisted (as described at Section 5 below), they will provide the digital version of the short film to the Organizer with a royalty-free, sublicensable, irrevocable, perpetual, worldwide, non-exclusive license for the Organizer, the Media Partners, the Scientific Partners as well as the ArtScience Museum at Marina Bay Sands in Singapore, the Glasgow Science Centre in Scotland, Otago Museum in New Zealand, and such other partners as may be determined from time to time  (“Screening Partners”) to use, reproduce, modify, publish, create derivative works from, and display such Submission in whole or in part, on a worldwide basis, and to incorporate it into other works, in any form, media or technology now known or later developed, including any and all Internet media, including the Organizer, the Media Partners, the Scientific Partners, and the Screening Partners’ web sites and properties and on social networking sites (i.e. Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, etc.); and (f) the Submission complies with all Guidelines and Restrictions (as defined at Section 4 below). The entrant must be able to provide on request all appropriate clearances, permissions, and releases for the entry, including releases from all persons appearing in the Submission, location releases for all recognizable locations, and releases from anyone who assisted in the creation of the Submission. In the event that an entrant cannot provide all required releases, Organizer reserves the right, in Organizer’s sole discretion, to disqualify the applicable entry or seek to secure the releases and clearances for Organizer’s benefit.

All entrants must have a valid email address. No automated entry devices and/or programs permitted.  Receipt of entries will not be acknowledged. Organizer is not responsible for lost, late, illegible, stolen, incomplete, invalid, unintelligible, technically corrupted or garbled entries, which will be disqualified, or for problems of any kind whether mechanical, human or electronic.  Only fully completed entry forms are eligible.  Proof of submission will not be deemed to be proof of receipt by Organizer.  

3. Start/End Dates. Contest begins at 12.00.01 AM GMT on October 1, 2018 and ends at 11:59:59 PM GMT on December 1, 2018 (“Contest Period”).

4. Submission Guidelines and Content Restrictions: By entering, each entrant agrees that his or her Submission conforms to the Submission Guidelines and Content Restrictions as defined below (collectively, the “Guidelines and Restrictions”) and that Organizer, in its sole discretion, may remove any Submission and disqualify an entrant from the Contest if it believes, in its sole discretion, that the entrant’s Submission fails to conform to the Guidelines and Restrictions.  

Submission Guidelines:

•    The Submission must not exceed 5 minutes in length.
•    The Submission must be clearly inspired by some aspect of quantum physics.
•    The Submission may be in languages other than English but only English-language dialogue or subtitles will be evaluated during the judging process.

Restrictions:

•    The Submission must be 100% original and entrant must be the sole and exclusive owner and copyright holder of the Submission;
•    The Submission can have been screened or been posted online previously, as long as the first screening date is no earlier than 2018;
•    The Submission must not contain material that violates or infringes any rights of any other party, including but not limited to copyright, trademark, privacy, publicity or any other intellectual property rights;
•    The Submission must be suitable for general audiences;
•    The Submission must not in any way disparage Organizer, Media Partners, Scientific Partners, or Screening Partners, or any other person or party;
•    The Submission must not contain material that is inappropriate, indecent, obscene hateful, tortious, defamatory, slanderous or libelous;
•    The Submission must not contain material that promotes bigotry, racism, hatred or harm against any group or individual or promotes discrimination based on race, gender, religion, nationality, disability, sexual orientation or age; and
•    The Submission must not contain material that is unlawful, in violation of or contrary to the laws or regulations of the United States or of any jurisdiction where Submission is created.
•    The Submission cannot promote illegal drugs or firearms (or the use of any of the foregoing),  or any activities that may appear unsafe or dangerous, or any particular political agenda or message; and
•    The Submissions cannot violate any applicable Terms of Service (or Terms of Use) of YouTube or Vimeo or FilmFreeway.

Organizer’s decisions are final and binding in all matters relating to this Contest, including, but not limited to, interpretation and application of these Official Rules.  By entering the Contest, entrants fully and unconditionally agree to be bound by these rules and the decisions of the judges, which will be final and binding in all matters relating to the Contest.  Organizer reserves the right to select fewer than the stated number of prizes if, in its sole discretion, it does not receive a sufficient number of eligible and qualified Submissions.  

5. Judging/Judging Criteria. The judging process will take place in stages as follows:

Shortlisting: Representatives of the Organizer and Partners that have the required knowledge and experience to apply the judging criteria will shortlist Submissions. All Submissions will be judged based on the following criteria (“Judging Criteria”): (a) overall impression, (b) storyline, (c) link to quantum physics and (d) quality of filming. Subject to verification, eligibility and compliance with these Official Rules, up to ten (10) Submissions will be shortlisted (“Shortlisted Entrants”). Shortlisted Entrants will be notified by the end of January, 2019.

Selection of Prizewinners: A panel of judges selected by the Organizer that have the required knowledge and experience to apply the Judging Criteria will select one (1) winner (“Winner” and one (1) runner-up (“Runner-Up”) from the Shortlisted Entrants. Subject to verification, eligibility and compliance with these Official Rules, the Winners and Runner-Up will be selected by the judging panel on or about March 2019.  In the event that the judges declare a tie with respect to any Winner or Runner-Up position the cash portion of the applicable Prize will be divided equally between entrants who submitted the tied Submissions, and each of the tied entrants will receive a trophy.

Public Voting for People’s Choice Prize: Online public voting on the shortlist begins at 12.00.01 AM GMT on January 28, 2019 and ends at 11:59:59PM GMT on March 14 2019 (the "Voting Period").  Members of the public can go to the Site during the Voting Period to vote for the Submission that best meets the Judging Criteria, as described in these Rules. Voting is limited to one (1) vote per person/authorized account holder during the Voting Period.

Sponsor retains the right, at its sole discretion, and without prior notice to entrants, to change or delay the dates of the judging process.

Use by entrants and third parties of personal social media accounts, blogs and websites to direct participants to voting site is permissible.  Organizer has the right, in its sole discretion, to maintain the integrity of the Contest, including the right to void votes, including, but not limited to, for the following reasons:
1. Multiple votes from the same user from different IP addresses or from different email addresses; fraudulent entry votes (using a redirect link, a disguised link, a fraudulent link, etc.);
2. Technical malfunction of servers or internet connection;
3. User(s) recanting their own votes;
4. Technical or content upgrades that render votes incompatible or inconsistent;
5. Inappropriate conduct in promoting votes (spam, harassment, etc.);
6. The purchase or exchange of votes domestically or overseas;
7. Payment or other forms of compensation offered in exchange for votes; and
8. Use of third-party websites, online social networking tools, or similar devices primarily designed or intended to generate or trade votes.

The entry that attracts the largest number of public votes during the Voting Period will win an additional ‘People’s Choice’ prize (“People’s Choice Prize,” won by the “People’s Choice Winner”).  Odds of winning depend on the number and quality of Submissions received.   

6. Prizes. Up to thirteen (13) prizes (each, a “Prize”) will be awarded across the Contest.  

(1)    Up to ten (10) shortlisted films will be selected for international screenings. A screening fee of USD 250, a certificate and a one-year digital subscription to Scientific American will be awarded to each Shortlisted Entrant.
(2)    First prize: USD 1500 and an engraved trophy
(3)    Runner up: USD 1000 and an engraved trophy
(4)    People’s Choice: USD 500 and an engraved trophy

Certificates and trophies will be shipped at no extra charge on provision of a postal address.

Screenings will take place in the period between January 28 2019 and  September 6 2019.  All Shortlisted Entrants will also be displayed on the contest website beginning on January 28 2019.   Details of the screening events will be published on the contest website.  Organizer shall have the right, in its sole discretion, to refrain from screening any or all Submissions, provided that eligible Shortlisted Entrants shall still be entitled to receive all applicable prizes specified in this Section.

Total approximate retail value of all prizes: USD 5900.

Prize(s) is/are non-transferable.  No substitutions.  In the case of unavailability of any prize, Organizer reserves the right to substitute a prize of equal or greater value.  All expenses not specifically listed herein are the responsibility of winner(s).  If any winner is considered a minor in his/her jurisdiction of residence, such prize will be delivered to minor’s parent/legal guardian and awarded in the name of parent/legal guardian who must agree in writing to be bound by these Official Rules.

7. Notification. Shortlisted Entrants will be notified by email before the end of January 2019.  Potential Shortlisted Entrants may be required to execute and return an affidavit of eligibility, release of liability, and, except where prohibited, any necessary publicity release(s) (collectively, “Supporting Documents”) by email and certified mail with return receipt requested within ten (10) business days of such notification. Noncompliance within this time period will result in disqualification and, at Sponsors’ sole discretion, an alternate potential Shortlisted Entrant may be selected from the remaining eligible Submissions. If any potential Shortlisted Entrant cannot be reached, is found to be ineligible, cannot or does not comply with these Official Rules, or if any or prize notification is returned as undeliverable, potential Winner will be disqualified and time permitting, and at Sponsors’ sole discretion, an alternate potential Winner may be selected from the remaining eligible Submissions. Upon prize forfeiture, no compensation will be given.  

8. Conditions. Organizer shall not be liable or responsible in the event that any winning Submission is not used or screened for any reason.  Submissions may be cut, edited, reformatted, rearranged, combined with other materials and/or otherwise modified, in Organizer’s sole and absolute discretion.  Any and all federal, state and local taxes are the sole responsibility of the winners. Participation in Contest and/or acceptance of prize constitutes each winner’s permission for Organizer, the Media Partners, the Scientific Partners, and the Screening Partners to use his/her name, address (city and state), likeness, photograph, picture, portrait, voice, biographical information, Submission and/or any statements made by each winner regarding the Contest or Organizer for advertising, promotional or editorial purposes without notice or additional compensation, except where prohibited by law. By participating, entrants and winners agree to release and hold harmless Organizer, the Media Partners, the Scientific Partners, the Contest Partners, and the Screening Partners, and their advertising and promotion agencies and their respective parent companies, subsidiaries, affiliates, partners, representatives, agents, successors, assigns, employees, officers and directors (collectively, “Released Entities”), from any and all liability, for loss, harm, damage, injury, cost or expense whatsoever including without limitation, property damage, personal injury and/or death which may occur in connection with, preparation for or participation in Contest, or possession, acceptance and/or use or misuse of prize or participation in any Contest-related activity and for any claims based on publicity rights, defamation, invasion of privacy, copyright infringement, trademark infringement or any other intellectual property-related cause of action.  Entrants who do not comply with these Official Rules, or attempt to interfere with this Contest in any way shall be disqualified. Organizer is not responsible if Contest cannot take place or if any prize cannot be awarded due to travel cancellations, delays or interruptions due to acts of God, acts of war, natural disasters, weather or acts of terrorism.   

9. Additional Terms. Any attempted form of entry other than as set forth in Section 1 above is prohibited; no automatic, programmed; robotic or similar means of entry are permitted. Organizer, its affiliates, partners and promotion and advertising agencies are not responsible for technical, hardware, software, telephone or other communications malfunctions, errors or failures of any kind, lost or unavailable network connections, web site, Internet, or ISP availability, unauthorized human intervention, traffic congestion, incomplete or inaccurate capture of entry information (regardless of cause) or failed, incomplete, garbled, jumbled or delayed computer transmissions which may limit one’s ability to enter the Contest, including any injury or damage to participant’s or any other person’s computer relating to or resulting from participating in this Contest or downloading any materials in this Contest.  Organizer reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to cancel, terminate, modify, extend or suspend this Contest should (in its sole discretion) virus, bugs, non-authorized human intervention, fraud or other causes beyond its control corrupt or affect the administration, security, fairness or proper conduct of the Contest. In such case, Organizer will select the winners from all eligible entries received prior to and/or after (if appropriate) the action taken by Organizer. Organizer reserves the right, at its sole discretion, to disqualify any individual it finds, in its sole discretion, to be tampering with the entry process or the operation of the Contest or web site.  Organizer may prohibit an entrant from participating in the Contest or winning a prize if, in its sole discretion, it determines that said entrant is attempting to undermine the legitimate operation of the Contest by cheating, hacking, deception, or other unfair playing practices (including the use of automated quick entry programs) or intending to annoy, abuse, threaten or harass any other entrants or Organizer representatives.

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CAUTION: ANY ATTEMPT BY AN ENTRANT TO DELIBERATELY DAMAGE ANY WEB SITE OR UNDERMINE THE LEGITIMATE OPERATION OF THE CONTEST MAY BE A VIOLATION OF CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAWS AND SHOULD SUCH AN ATTEMPT BE MADE, THE ORGANIZER RESERVES THE RIGHT TO SEEK DAMAGES FROM ANY SUCH PERSON TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW.

In the event of a dispute as to any Submission, the authorized account holder of the email address used to register or submit content will be deemed to be the entrant and must comply with these Official Rules.  The "authorized account holder" is the natural person assigned an email address by an Internet access provider, online service provider or other organization responsible for assigning email addresses for the domain associated with the submitted address. Each entrant may be required to show proof of being an authorized account holder.

THIS PROMOTION IS IN NO WAY SPONSORED, ENDORSED OR ADMINISTERED BY, OR ASSOCIATED WITH, YOUTUBE OR VIMEO. YOU ARE PROVIDING YOUR INFORMATION TO ORGANIZER AND NOT TO YOUTUBE OR VIMEO.  
ALL CONTENT THAT YOU SUBMIT OR UPLOAD TO VIMEO, YOUTUBE, OR FILMFREEWAY IS GOVERNED BY THAT SITE’S TERMS OF USE AND PRIVACY POLICY, IN ADDITION TO THESE OFFICIAL RULES.

10.  Limitation of Liability; Disclaimer of Warranties.  IN NO EVENT WILL THE RELEASED ENTITIES BE RESPONSIBLE OR LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES OR LOSSES OF ANY KIND, INCLUDING DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF YOUR ACCESS TO AND USE OF THE SITE AND/OR ENTRY IN THE CONTEST, DOWNLOADING FROM AND/OR PRINTING MATERIAL DOWNLOADED FROM ANY WEBSITES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONTEST. WITHOUT LIMITING THE FOREGOING, THIS CONTEST AND ALL PRIZES ARE PROVIDED "AS IS"  WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR NON-INFRINGEMENT. SOME JURISDICTIONS MAY NOT ALLOW THE LIMITATIONS OR EXCLUSION OF LIABILITY FOR INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES SO SOME OF THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS OR EXCLUSIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. CHECK YOUR LOCAL LAWS FOR ANY RESTRICTIONS OR LIMITATIONS REGARDING THESE LIMITATIONS OR EXCLUSIONS.

11.  Use of Data.  By participating in the Contest, entrants hereby agree to Organizer’s collection and usage of their personal information for the purpose of the Contest.  

12. List of Winners. To obtain a list of winners, send an email by June 1, 2019 to: shorts@quantumlah.org.

13. Organizer. Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Block S15, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543.
 

Quantum Theories: A to Z

O is for ...
Objective reality

Niels Bohr, one of the founding fathers of quantum physics, said there is no such thing as objective reality. All we can talk about, he said, is the results of measurements we make.

W is for ...
Wave-particle duality

It is possible to describe an atom, an electron, or a photon as either a wave or a particle. In reality, they are both: a wave and a particle.

I is for ...
Interferometer

Some of the strangest characteristics of quantum theory can be demonstrated by firing a photon into an interferometer: the device’s output is a pattern that can only be explained by the photon passing simultaneously through two widely-separated slits.

C is for ...
Cryptography

People have been hiding information in messages for millennia, but the quantum world provides a whole new way to do it.

H is for ...
Hawking Radiation

In 1975, Stephen Hawking showed that the principles of quantum mechanics would mean that a black hole emits a slow stream of particles and would eventually evaporate.

M is for ...
Many Worlds Theory

Some researchers think the best way to explain the strange characteristics of the quantum world is to allow that each quantum event creates a new universe.

X is for ...
X-ray

In 1923 Arthur Compton shone X-rays onto a block of graphite and found that they bounced off with their energy reduced exactly as would be expected if they were composed of particles colliding with electrons in the graphite. This was the first indication of radiation’s particle-like nature.

D is for ...
Dice

Albert Einstein decided quantum theory couldn’t be right because its reliance on probability means everything is a result of chance. “God doesn’t play dice with the world,” he said.

E is for ...
Entanglement

When two quantum objects interact, the information they contain becomes shared. This can result in a kind of link between them, where an action performed on one will affect the outcome of an action performed on the other. This “entanglement” applies even if the two particles are half a universe apart.

S is for ...
Superposition

Quantum objects can exist in two or more states at once: an electron in superposition, for example, can simultaneously move clockwise and anticlockwise around a ring-shaped conductor.

Q is for ...
Quantum biology

A new and growing field that explores whether many biological processes depend on uniquely quantum processes to work. Under particular scrutiny at the moment are photosynthesis, smell and the navigation of migratory birds.

R is for ...
Radioactivity

The atoms of a radioactive substance break apart, emitting particles. It is impossible to predict when the next particle will be emitted as it happens at random. All we can do is give the probability that any particular atom will have decayed by a given time.

G is for ...
Gravity

Our best theory of gravity no longer belongs to Isaac Newton. It’s Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. There’s just one problem: it is incompatible with quantum theory. The effort to tie the two together provides the greatest challenge to physics in the 21st century.

T is for ...
Tunnelling

This happens when quantum objects “borrow” energy in order to bypass an obstacle such as a gap in an electrical circuit. It is possible thanks to the uncertainty principle, and enables quantum particles to do things other particles can’t.

A is for ...
Act of observation

Some people believe this changes everything in the quantum world, even bringing things into existence.

U is for ...
Uncertainty Principle

One of the most famous ideas in science, this declares that it is impossible to know all the physical attributes of a quantum particle or system simultaneously.

S is for ...
Schrödinger Equation

This is the central equation of quantum theory, and describes how any quantum system will behave, and how its observable qualities are likely to manifest in an experiment.

F is for ...
Free Will

Ideas at the heart of quantum theory, to do with randomness and the character of the molecules that make up the physical matter of our brains, lead some researchers to suggest humans can’t have free will.

H is for ...
Hidden Variables

One school of thought says that the strangeness of quantum theory can be put down to a lack of information; if we could find the “hidden variables” the mysteries would all go away.

B is for ...
Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC)

At extremely low temperatures, quantum rules mean that atoms can come together and behave as if they are one giant super-atom.

C is for ...
Computing

The rules of the quantum world mean that we can process information much faster than is possible using the computers we use now.

G is for ...
Gluon

These elementary particles hold together the quarks that lie at the heart of matter.

R is for ...
Randomness

Unpredictability lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. It bothered Einstein, but it also bothers the Dalai Lama.

S is for ...
Schrödinger’s Cat

A hypothetical experiment in which a cat kept in a closed box can be alive and dead at the same time – as long as nobody lifts the lid to take a look.

K is for ...
Kaon

These are particles that carry a quantum property called strangeness. Some fundamental particles have the property known as charm!

M is for ...
Multiverse

Our most successful theories of cosmology suggest that our universe is one of many universes that bubble off from one another. It’s not clear whether it will ever be possible to detect these other universes.

Y is for ...
Young's Double Slit Experiment

In 1801, Thomas Young proved light was a wave, and overthrew Newton’s idea that light was a “corpuscle”.

L is for ...
Light

We used to believe light was a wave, then we discovered it had the properties of a particle that we call a photon. Now we know it, like all elementary quantum objects, is both a wave and a particle!

W is for ...
Wavefunction

The mathematics of quantum theory associates each quantum object with a wavefunction that appears in the Schrödinger equation and gives the probability of finding it in any given state.

L is for ...
Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

At CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, this machine is smashing apart particles in order to discover their constituent parts and the quantum laws that govern their behaviour.

P is for ...
Planck's Constant

This is one of the universal constants of nature, and relates the energy of a single quantum of radiation to its frequency. It is central to quantum theory and appears in many important formulae, including the Schrödinger Equation.

Z is for ...
Zero-point energy

Even at absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, nothing has zero energy. In these conditions, particles and fields are in their lowest energy state, with an energy proportional to Planck’s constant.

K is for ...
Key

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a way to create secure cryptographic keys, allowing for more secure communication.

P is for ...
Probability

Quantum mechanics is a probabilistic theory: it does not give definite answers, but only the probability that an experiment will come up with a particular answer. This was the source of Einstein’s objection that God “does not play dice” with the universe.

J is for ...
Josephson Junction

This is a narrow constriction in a ring of superconductor. Current can only move around the ring because of quantum laws; the apparatus provides a neat way to investigate the properties of quantum mechanics and is a technology to build qubits for quantum computers.

A is for ...
Atom

This is the basic building block of matter that creates the world of chemical elements – although it is made up of more fundamental particles.

N is for ...
Nonlocality

When two quantum particles are entangled, it can also be said they are “nonlocal”: their physical proximity does not affect the way their quantum states are linked.

T is for ...
Teleportation

Quantum tricks allow a particle to be transported from one location to another without passing through the intervening space – or that’s how it appears. The reality is that the process is more like faxing, where the information held by one particle is written onto a distant particle.

U is for ...
Universe

To many researchers, the universe behaves like a gigantic quantum computer that is busy processing all the information it contains.

R is for ...
Reality

Since the predictions of quantum theory have been right in every experiment ever done, many researchers think it is the best guide we have to the nature of reality. Unfortunately, that still leaves room for plenty of ideas about what reality really is!

I is for ...
Information

Many researchers working in quantum theory believe that information is the most fundamental building block of reality.

D is for ...
Decoherence

Unless it is carefully isolated, a quantum system will “leak” information into its surroundings. This can destroy delicate states such as superposition and entanglement.

V is for ...
Virtual particles

Quantum theory’s uncertainty principle says that since not even empty space can have zero energy, the universe is fizzing with particle-antiparticle pairs that pop in and out of existence. These “virtual” particles are the source of Hawking radiation.

B is for ...
Bell's Theorem

In 1964, John Bell came up with a way of testing whether quantum theory was a true reflection of reality. In 1982, the results came in – and the world has never been the same since!

A is for ...
Alice and Bob

In quantum experiments, these are the names traditionally given to the people transmitting and receiving information. In quantum cryptography, an eavesdropper called Eve tries to intercept the information.

Q is for ...
Qubit

One quantum bit of information is known as a qubit (pronounced Q-bit). The ability of quantum particles to exist in many different states at once means a single quantum object can represent multiple qubits at once, opening up the possibility of extremely fast information processing.

Copyright © 2018 Centre for Quantum Technologies. All rights reserved.