Quantum Treasure

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The roads were dark. The sky was as black as if it had swallowed the sun. Raj was running away from someone. He didn’t see his face but after hearing the loud footsteps, he understood that from one he is running away was a demon. After a few seconds, he realized that the roads were narrowing and he couldn’t even breathe. He started running fast. Suddenly, a small pebble came under his feet and he fell and saw the demon was about to tread on him. He cried out for help. ‘What happened then?’ asked Ishan.  Ishan was a very good friend of Raj. ‘I don’t know. I woke up sweating.’ said Raj. ‘Dreams are related to what you think throughout the day. And after the sudden death of your father, you are going through hard times mentally. These scary dreams are just the result of it.’ said Ishan. ‘SHUT UP! My father hasn’t died. He just disappeared doing his experiment.’ shouted Raj. ‘I still remember the night before the experiment. He was explaining to me, how he understood the bunch of maps what my grandfather had given him at the time of his death by saying the last words Quantum Maps and he showed three fingers.’ said Raj. ‘My father told me that the maps are called Quantum Maps because they are related to a quantum phenomenon, called Entanglement and it will lead to a treasure. I stopped him that night and said, “I don’t believe in this nonsense story”. I should have listened to him. I can’t forgive myself.’ cried Raj.

‘Do you have your father’s notebook. It can lead to your father.’ said Ishan. ‘Yes, I tried to understand it but it went over my head. It is full of Quantum Physics.’ replied Raj. ‘Don’t worry, I know Quantum Physics very well.’ said Ishan. Raj gave the diary of his father to Ishan.

‘Here it is written that, there is a place in your house that is a way to another world. That world is dual of our world. The Map will show the path to it.’ said Ishan. ‘Rubbish, how can there be another world?’ said Raj. ‘In Quantum Mechanics, a system is described by a state vector and there exists a dual space where the state vector is just the complex conjugate followed by the transpose of the original state vector. In Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics also, there exist many worlds like our own.’ said Ishan. ‘It’s a lot to think about.’ said Raj. ‘What’s written more?’

‘The treasure in the dual world is in a box which takes the shape of either zero or one. There are two buttons on it, one of zero and other of one. If you press the correct button, you will get the treasure otherwise the monsters will follow you. But even after pressing the correct button you have to leave in two minutes, otherwise the treasure will go back into the box.’ said Ishan. ‘My father must have been caught by the monsters.’ said Raj. Ishan stopped him and said ‘No, it can’t happen. The way to press the correct button is also written in the diary. The treasure behaves like the sigma X operator, which flips the bit. That means the correct button will be the opposite of the shape of the treasure box. So, don’t worry. There is something else that has happened.’ said Ishan. Raj breathed the sign of relief and asked “But there is one more thing that is scratching my brain”. ‘What is the meaning of three, what my grandfather showed’. ‘Maybe the map can help us’ said Ishan.

Both of them started analyzing the Maps. ‘As your father had pointed out, the maps are related to Quantum Entanglement and Entanglement is about the correlations of the states. It means that every map is related to one another.’ said Ishan. ‘Entanglement is a combined property, there is no place of individuality. So, we have to see all the maps at one shot, only then it will make sense to us.’

Both of them placed all the maps together and it looked like a symbol. Suddenly Raj shouted ‘I have seen it, it’s in my basement.’ Both of them rushed to the basement. After a few seconds, Raj found the symbol and pressed it. And suddenly everything around them changed. They found themselves in a dark forest, which was divided by a road. They were now in the dual world. The wind blew whenever Raj thought about his father. The wind tried to give a hint. Suddenly they found the treasure box in the shape of one and without waiting they pressed zero button. After pressing it, the treasure came out of the box. Ishan took it. Instantly, a demon started running towards them. Both of them started running away from him. ‘Why is the demon following us?’ asked Ishan. ‘It was not in the diary.’ ‘You can’t have a perfect plan. Deal with it. RUN!’ said Raj. After a few seconds, Ishan noticed that the roads were narrowing and he was unable to catch his breath. Ishan said while running ‘all of this is happening like your dream’. Instantaneously, Raj stopped to see the demon and got stunned. The demon was his father. He cried with a loud voice PAPAA! ‘Let’s go home. I have spent long nights being awoken and crying.’ The demon lifted Raj with his big hands to eat. Raj again cried with a louder voice. ‘How long do you make me wait? The hope of your sight had become eternal. My heart is craving for your love.’ The demon lifted Ishan with his other hand and whispered in their ears. ‘I love you kids. Let’s go home.’ All three of them started running to the exit. At the exit, it was written that the gate will open only if the number of people is three. ‘Maybe that’s what your grandfather had been pointing to for three’, said Ishan.

 

About the Author: 
I am currently in the final year of my M.Sc. Physics. I want to do my PhD in theoretical Physics. The world is full of hidden mysteries. I want to disclose them for one to all. I am hoping to illumine the world of science with my findings.
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Quantum Theories: A to Z

U is for ...
Universe

To many researchers, the universe behaves like a gigantic quantum computer that is busy processing all the information it contains.

C is for ...
Clocks

The most precise clocks we have are atomic clocks which are powered by quantum mechanics. Besides keeping time, they can also let your smartphone know where you are.

I is for ...
Interferometer

Some of the strangest characteristics of quantum theory can be demonstrated by firing a photon into an interferometer

D is for ...
Decoherence

Unless it is carefully isolated, a quantum system will “leak” information into its surroundings. This can destroy delicate states such as superposition and entanglement.

D is for ...
Dice

Albert Einstein decided quantum theory couldn’t be right because its reliance on probability means everything is a result of chance. “God doesn’t play dice with the world,” he said.

I is for ...
Information

Many researchers working in quantum theory believe that information is the most fundamental building block of reality.

B is for ...
Bell's Theorem

In 1964, John Bell came up with a way of testing whether quantum theory was a true reflection of reality. In 1982, the results came in – and the world has never been the same since!

E is for ...
Entanglement

When two quantum objects interact, the information they contain becomes shared. This can result in a kind of link between them, where an action performed on one will affect the outcome of an action performed on the other. This “entanglement” applies even if the two particles are half a universe apart.

M is for ...
Many Worlds Theory

Some researchers think the best way to explain the strange characteristics of the quantum world is to allow that each quantum event creates a new universe.

Q is for ...
Quantum biology

A new and growing field that explores whether many biological processes depend on uniquely quantum processes to work. Under particular scrutiny at the moment are photosynthesis, smell and the navigation of migratory birds.

X is for ...
X-ray

In 1923 Arthur Compton shone X-rays onto a block of graphite and found that they bounced off with their energy reduced exactly as would be expected if they were composed of particles colliding with electrons in the graphite. This was the first indication of radiation’s particle-like nature.

S is for ...
Schrödinger’s Cat

A hypothetical experiment in which a cat kept in a closed box can be alive and dead at the same time – as long as nobody lifts the lid to take a look.

S is for ...
Superposition

The feature of a quantum system whereby it exists in several separate quantum states at the same time.

A is for ...
Alice and Bob

In quantum experiments, these are the names traditionally given to the people transmitting and receiving information. In quantum cryptography, an eavesdropper called Eve tries to intercept the information.

V is for ...
Virtual particles

Quantum theory’s uncertainty principle says that since not even empty space can have zero energy, the universe is fizzing with particle-antiparticle pairs that pop in and out of existence. These “virtual” particles are the source of Hawking radiation.

S is for ...
Sensors

Researchers are harnessing the intricacies of quantum mechanics to develop powerful quantum sensors. These sensors could open up a wide range of applications.

Q is for ...
Qubit

One quantum bit of information is known as a qubit (pronounced Q-bit). The ability of quantum particles to exist in many different states at once means a single quantum object can represent multiple qubits at once, opening up the possibility of extremely fast information processing.

C is for ...
Computing

The rules of the quantum world mean that we can process information much faster than is possible using the computers we use now. This column from Quanta Magazine ​delves into the fundamental physics behind quantum computing.

Q is for ...
Quantum States

Quantum states, which represent the state of affairs of a quantum system, change by a different set of rules than classical states.

W is for ...
Wave-particle duality

It is possible to describe an atom, an electron, or a photon as either a wave or a particle. In reality, they are both: a wave and a particle.

K is for ...
Key

Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) is a way to create secure cryptographic keys, allowing for more secure communication.

G is for ...
Gravity

Our best theory of gravity no longer belongs to Isaac Newton. It’s Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. There’s just one problem: it is incompatible with quantum theory. The effort to tie the two together provides the greatest challenge to physics in the 21st century.

L is for ...
Light

We used to believe light was a wave, then we discovered it had the properties of a particle that we call a photon. Now we know it, like all elementary quantum objects, is both a wave and a particle!

C is for ...
Cryptography

People have been hiding information in messages for millennia, but the quantum world provides a whole new way to do it.

F is for ...
Free Will

Ideas at the heart of quantum theory, to do with randomness and the character of the molecules that make up the physical matter of our brains, lead some researchers to suggest humans can’t have free will.

M is for ...
Multiverse

Our most successful theories of cosmology suggest that our universe is one of many universes that bubble off from one another. It’s not clear whether it will ever be possible to detect these other universes.

E is for ...
Ethics

As the world makes more advances in quantum science and technologies, it is time to think about how it will impact lives and how society should respond. This mini-documentary by the Quantum Daily is a good starting point to think about these ethical issues. 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5qc7gpabEhQ&t=2s 

H is for ...
Hidden Variables

One school of thought says that the strangeness of quantum theory can be put down to a lack of information; if we could find the “hidden variables” the mysteries would all go away.

Y is for ...
Young's Double Slit Experiment

In 1801, Thomas Young proved light was a wave, and overthrew Newton’s idea that light was a “corpuscle”.

A is for ...
Atom

This is the basic building block of matter that creates the world of chemical elements – although it is made up of more fundamental particles.

M is for ...
Maths

Quantum physics is the study of nature at the very small. Mathematics is one language used to formalise or describe quantum phenomena.

U is for ...
Uncertainty Principle

One of the most famous ideas in science, this declares that it is impossible to know all the physical attributes of a quantum particle or system simultaneously.

O is for ...
Objective reality

Niels Bohr, one of the founding fathers of quantum physics, said there is no such thing as objective reality. All we can talk about, he said, is the results of measurements we make.

T is for ...
Tunnelling

This happens when quantum objects “borrow” energy in order to bypass an obstacle such as a gap in an electrical circuit. It is possible thanks to the uncertainty principle, and enables quantum particles to do things other particles can’t.

B is for ...
Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC)

At extremely low temperatures, quantum rules mean that atoms can come together and behave as if they are one giant super-atom.

H is for ...
Hawking Radiation

In 1975, Stephen Hawking showed that the principles of quantum mechanics would mean that a black hole emits a slow stream of particles and would eventually evaporate.

G is for ...
Gluon

These elementary particles hold together the quarks that lie at the heart of matter.

P is for ...
Probability

Quantum mechanics is a probabilistic theory: it does not give definite answers, but only the probability that an experiment will come up with a particular answer. This was the source of Einstein’s objection that God “does not play dice” with the universe.

Z is for ...
Zero-point energy

Even at absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, nothing has zero energy. In these conditions, particles and fields are in their lowest energy state, with an energy proportional to Planck’s constant.

K is for ...
Kaon

These are particles that carry a quantum property called strangeness. Some fundamental particles have the property known as charm!

N is for ...
Nonlocality

When two quantum particles are entangled, it can also be said they are “nonlocal”: their physical proximity does not affect the way their quantum states are linked.

S is for ...
Schrödinger Equation

This is the central equation of quantum theory, and describes how any quantum system will behave, and how its observable qualities are likely to manifest in an experiment.

T is for ...
Time

The arrow of time is “irreversible”—time goes forward. On microscopic quantum scales, this seems less certain. A recent experiment shows that the forward pointing of the arrow of time remains a fundamental rule for quantum measurements.

R is for ...
Reality

Since the predictions of quantum theory have been right in every experiment ever done, many researchers think it is the best guide we have to the nature of reality. Unfortunately, that still leaves room for plenty of ideas about what reality really is!

W is for ...
Wavefunction

The mathematics of quantum theory associates each quantum object with a wavefunction that appears in the Schrödinger equation and gives the probability of finding it in any given state.

T is for ...
Teleportation

Quantum tricks allow a particle to be transported from one location to another without passing through the intervening space – or that’s how it appears. The reality is that the process is more like faxing, where the information held by one particle is written onto a distant particle.

P is for ...
Planck's Constant

This is one of the universal constants of nature, and relates the energy of a single quantum of radiation to its frequency. It is central to quantum theory and appears in many important formulae, including the Schrödinger Equation.

A is for ...
Act of observation

Some people believe this changes everything in the quantum world, even bringing things into existence.

L is for ...
Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

At CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, this machine is smashing apart particles in order to discover their constituent parts and the quantum laws that govern their behaviour.

R is for ...
Randomness

Unpredictability lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. It bothered Einstein, but it also bothers the Dalai Lama.

J is for ...
Josephson Junction

This is a narrow constriction in a ring of superconductor. Current can only move around the ring because of quantum laws; the apparatus provides a neat way to investigate the properties of quantum mechanics and is a technology to build qubits for quantum computers.

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